HAM COOKED WITH CIDER
5 lb (2.25Kg) ham soaked overnight in cold water and drained, 1 large onion stuck with 4 cloves, 1/2 lemon, 1 teaspoon brown sugar, 1 pint (600ml) cider, top up with water.
Put the ham into a large saucepan (which holds the ham snugly), add all the ingredients. The liquid should barely cover the ham but if necessary add more water. Bring to the boil then simmer gently for 25 minutes to the pound. Let it cool in the stock then peel the ham of the skin, and sieve and reserve the stock.
Mix together: 4 tablespoons of clear honey, 2 tablespoons brown sugar, 4 tablespoons crisp fine grated breadcrumbs, 1/2 teaspoon mixed spice, 2 tablespoons of made up mustard powder. Moisten with some cider.
Score the ham fat with a sharp knife. Pour over and coat the ham all over with the glaze mixture, working it into the ham. Line a baking tin with foil and put the ham in with about 1/2 pint (300ml or 1 cup) of ham and cider stock poured around the base. Bake in a moderate oven 375F (190C) for about 30 minutes.
CIG OEN A MEL (HONEYED LAMB)
4lb (1.8Kg) shoulder of spring lamb, 8 oz (225g or 1 cup) thick honey, 2 level tablespoons rosemary, 1/2 pint (300ml or 1 cup) cider approx, salt and freshly ground black pepper, 1 teaspoon ginger
Serves about 6. Line a baking tin with foil as the honey can make it very sticky. Rub the shoulder all over with salt, pepper and the ginger. Put into the baking tin and sprinkle half the finely shopped rosemary over the top. Coat the top skin with honey and pour the cider around. Bake in a hot oven 400F (200C) for 1/2 an hour (30 minutes) then lower the heat to 325F (160C) and cook for a further 1 1/2 hours (90 Minutes). Fifteen minutes before the lamb is ready, baste carefully and sprinkle over the remaining rosemary. Add a little more cider if it appears to be drying up. Pour off any excess fat from the gravy and reduce slightly on top of the oven, adding more cider if it has evaporated. Serve the sauce separately in a warmed gravy boat.
6lb (2.75Kg) boned rib of beef or rump. 1/2 lb (250g) coarse salt, 4 oz (115g or 1/2 cup) soft brown sugar, 1/2 oz (15g or 1 level tablespoon) saltpetre, 3 tablespoons beef dripping or oil, 1 large sliced onion, 6 sliced carrots, 2 teaspoons each of ground black pepper, cloves, allspice and mace, 1 bayleaf, 1 pint (600ml or 2 cups) stock
Serves about 8. Mix the salt, sugar, saltpetre and spices together, put the meat in a deep earthenware dish and rub the salt mixture all over it. Cover and leave for 10 days, turning the meat each day and rubbing the salt mixture well over all the joint. After 10 days, remove the meat and wash thoroughly, dab it dry with kitchen paper and tie up in a shape convenient for carving. Heat the beef dripping or oil in a heavy fireproof pot or casserole dish and lightly fry the onions, bayleaf and carrots. When the onion has softened, put the joint of beef on top of the vegetables and pour stock around. Transfer the casserole to a moderate oven 300F (150C) and cook for around 4 hours. Lower the heat after 1 hour to around 250F (120C). From time to time, check the liquid has not dried up, adding a little more if required. This spiced beef should be so tender that it can be pulled apart with a fork. Either serve hot as it is or turn out into a deep dish, strain the juices and pour over, place a plate on top and then a weight on top of the plate and leave overnight. Serve cold in slices.
CIG EIDION CYMREIG WEDI EI FRWYSIO (WELSH BRAISED BEEF)
3 lb (1.5Kg) shin of beef chopped into 2 inch (5cm) pieces, 1 lb (500g) smoked Welsh bacon cut into 2 inch (5cm) pieces, 4 small turnips, 4 large onion, 4 medium sliced carrots, 1 tablespoon lard or butter, 1 tablespoon wheat flour, 1/2 pint (300ml or 1 cup) light beer or cider, 3 pints (1.8 Litres or 6 cups) water, 1 lb (500g) potatoes, 6 leeks, sprig of thyme marjoram, savoury, salt and pepper.
Serves 6. In a very large saucepan melt the fat (butter or lard) and lightly fry the chopped meats in it. Shake over the flour and let it just colour then add the water. Cover and cook gently for about 40 minutes, skimming off any scum that rises. Keeping the potatoes and leeks until later, add the sliced vegetables and herbs, season to taste and bring back to the boil. Add the beer or cider and simmer very gently for at least an hour or until the beef is quite tender. Add the cleaned, chopped leeks with the potatoes cut in half and stir well. Continue to simmer until the leeks and potatoes are cooked through but not mushy. This braised beef should not be too watery. If preferred, it can be cooked in a slow to moderate oven 275F (150C).
TATWS RHOST (HOT POT)
1 1/2 lb (750g) potatoes, 3 large onions, peeled and sliced thinly, 1 lb (500g) thickly sliced smoked bacon or raw ham, 2 tablespoons chopped parsley, 1/2 pint (300ml or 1 cup) water, stock or cider. salt and pepper
Serves 4. Peel and slice the potatoes thickly and slice the onions thinly. Trim off rinds from bacon rashers but leave whole. In a fire-proof dish start with a layer of potatoes at the bottom the add bacon, parsley and finally onion, all seasoned well. Repeat the layers ending with a layer of potato. Pour over the stock, put a sheet of greased foil on top, then the lid and cook slowly in a slow oven 250F (120C) for about 2 hours. Remove the lid and foil for the last 20 minutes to brown the top.
TATWS RHOST (ANOTHER WAY): Fill a casserole with alternate layers of salt bacon, sliced onions and sliced potatoes, add a little salt, cover with the lid and cook slowly for about 3 hours. If cooking in an oven, remove the lid for the last 15 minutes to allow the top layer of potatoes to brown.
STWNS RWDAN A LAU
This dish was cooked over the fire in a pot, but a casserole in the oven is best. Its ingredients are liver, onions or leeks, swedes and potatoes. Cut the liver and the onions into slices and fry until brown, then roll in seasoned flour, place in a casserole or saucepan and simmer gently for about 3 hours. This is served with what is called stwns – boiled swedes and potatoes well mashed together, with a lump of butter and a little fresh milk or buttermilk.
PWDIN REIS (RICE PUDDING)
2 oz (60g or 1/4 cup) rice, 1 pint (600ml or 2 cups) milk, 1/2 pint (300ml or 1cup) water, 2 oz (60g or 1/4 cup) Demerara (soft brown) sugar, 1 large or 2 small separated eggs, 1 heaped tablespoon caster (extra fine) sugar, 1 heaped tablespoon butter, 1 bay leaf, good pinch grated nutmeg
Simmer the rice in the water for about 10 minutes then drain the liquid off. To the rice add all the other ingredients except the eggs and caster sugar. Either cook in a double boiler on top of the stove or in a very moderate oven 300F (150C) for about 1 1/2 hours (90 minutes). Remove from the heat and stir in the beaten egg yolks and return to the oven for a further 1/2 hour (30 minutes). Meanwhile beat the egg white until stiff with the caster sugar and just before serving fold this into the rice pudding. If serving hot, put back into a cool oven just to set the whites. It is also very good served cold later on. This rice pudding is often served with jam, honey or a compote of oranges.
CREGYN GLEISON (MUSSEL STEW)
60 – 80 mussels, 1/2 pint (300ml or 1 cup) water, 2 tablespoons oil or butter, 4 tablespoons sherry, 6 small finely chopped mushrooms, 1 clove crushed garlic (or wild garlic), 1 large finely sliced onion, 3 oz (85g or 1 cup) fine fresh white breadcrumbs, 2 teaspoons lemon juice, 2 tablespoons chopped parsley, 1 egg yolk beaten with 4 tablespoons light cream, salt and pepper
Serves 4 – 6. Wash and scrub the mussels well in cold running water to remove all traces of grit, sand, barnacles etc. Discard any that are open. Put them into a large saucepan with the water, cover and cook on a gentle heat for about 5 minutes or until all the shells are open.
Strain off the liquid and reserve. Break of one side of the mussel-shell (keeping any of the escaping juices) and remove the beards. Heat up the oil or butter and very lightly fry the onion, garlic and finally the mushrooms. Drain off any excess oil. Add the breadcrumbs, lemon juice, liquor from the mussels, parsley, sherry and season to taste. Bring just up to boiling point and simmer gently for around 5 minutes. Finally add the egg yolk and cream beaten together. Stir well and put in the mussels. Heat up but do not let the sauce boil once the egg yolk and cream are added.
MUSSEL SOUP: For a more soup like dish proceed as for Mussel Stew but cook the mussels in 1 pint (2 cups) water, omit the breadcrumbs and remove both shells from the mussels. Serve with hot bread spread with garlic butter.
BRYTHYLL A CHIG MOCH (TROUT WITH BACON)
6 trout, 12 thin rashers of smoked bacon (half lean, half fat), 1 tablespoon chopped parsley, salt and pepper
Serves 4-6. Split and clean the trout and remove the bones. Line a fireproof dish with half the bacon rashers. Lay the trout on top, season well and sprinkle over the parsley. Cover with the remaining bacon rashers and bake in a hot oven 400F (200C) for about 15 – 20 minutes.
PWDIN ERYRI (SNOWDON PUDDING)
4 oz (115g or 1 cup) grated suet (butter or margarine can be used but are not traditional), 4 oz (2 cups firmly pressed down) white breadcrumbs, 1 oz (30g or 1 tablespoon) cornflour (cornstarch) or ground rice, finely grated rind of 1 lemon, 3 oz (85g or scant cup) lemon or orange marmalade, 3 oz (85g or 3 tablespoons) brown sugar, 3 well beaten eggs, 3 tablespoons seedless raisins, a little butter, pinch of salt.
Grease well a pudding basin about 6 inches high with butter. Press as many of the seedless raisins onto the sides as it will take. Mix together the suet, breadcrumbs, cornflour and salt, add the grated lemon rind, marmalade and sugar. Beat the eggs well and mix them in with any left over raisins. Spoon the mixture into the basin taking care not to dislodge the raisins from the sides. Cover with foil and tie down. Either steam the pudding or simmer it in a saucepan of boiling water to half=way up the basin for 50 – 60 minutes. Ensure the saucepan does not boil dry by topping up with water. Turn out onto a warmed plate and serve with Saws Gwin (wine sauce).
2 oz, (60g or 2 tablespoons) sugar, 1 tablespoon butter, 1/2 lemon rind in one piece, 1/4 pint (150ml or 1/2 cup) Madeira Red Wine (or sweet sherry Marsala or sweet red or white wine), 2 tablespoons water, 1 teaspoon cornflour (cornstarch)
To make the wine sauce: Boil the sugar, lemon rind and water for about 15 minutes then remove the rind. Thoroughly mix the cornflour into the butter and stir into the sugar mixture. Add the wine and let simmer gently for about 10 minutes until the liquid has become syrupy. Serve very hot in a sauceboat. Serves 4
TO STEW A BREAST OF VEAL (Anne Wynne of Bodewryd, Anglesey, 1675)
Take a brest of veal and score it and flower it, put a good quantity in yr pan, where yr liquid is bott, put the brest in it and let if fry till it be very brown – turning it ofter – then take brest and clean it from the liquor and clean the pan, then put a good quantity of claret with some cloves, mace, nutmegs into yr pan, with pickled oysters, 2 anchovies and a shallot. Let yr brest stew in it, and when it is stewed enough, serve it up with sliced lemon – claret or cider will do.
APRICOCKE WINE (Anne Wynne of Bodewryd, Anglesey, 1675)
‘Your fruit must be very ripe, then take to every gallon of boyling water a pound and a half of good powder sugar: paire your apricockes and mashe them and ye peeloe along with them, by sure to take ye stones out; your sugar must be boyled with the watter till the rawness of the watter be boyled, then have in readiness your apricockes in an earthen vessell, so pour the hott Liquor upon them and let them lye 2 days stirring them twice a day, then straine them through a haire sieve, barrill it up for a fortnight, then bottle it with a lump of sugar in each bottle.’