These are the most useful words to know in describing Medieval foods, recipes and banquet protocol.
Abouwyn: on top
Addes, adze: an axe with a right-angle blade and a hammer-head on the other side, used by Cooper’s in making the barrels holding the beer, ale, wine etc.
Aftere þat: recipe proportion or instruction.
Alaye: this is a term used to describe carving a pheasant.
Alkenade or alkanet: red dye
Allemaundys or Almaun or Almondes: almonds, a very important ingredient in Medieval cooking.
Ambre gelly: jelly made the colour of amber or jelly with ambergriis added to flavour and scent the jelly.
Applys or Aplyn: apples
Aray. Dress, set forth,
Alye it. mix, thicken, hence
Al, Alle. All
Almandes. variously written at this time, Almaunde, Almandys, Almaundys, Almondes and mean Almond or Almonds.
Almaund mylke. Almonds blanched and drawn thickish with good broth or water,
Aneys, Anyse, Anis or Aniseed confectioned red, or white, used for garnish.
Alkenet. A species of Buglos. used for colouring
Anoon. Anon, immediately.
Avysement. Advice, Direction.
Aquapatys. a Mess or Dish.
Appulmoy. Appelyn, Applys, Apples.
Aysell. a type of Vinegar.
Barbe: this is a term used to describe carving a lobster.
Base: the fish, Bass, a common perch.
Bastarde: a sweet Spanish wine.
Bataillyng: adding battlement embelishments to castles (castelettes).
Beforne: before that.
Berm or Berme: yeast from frothy fermenting ale.
Bet: to beat.
Blaunche poudyr: a spice blend of powdered cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger.
Blaunche manger: basically any and all white foods, normally white meats ground up with milk and almonds etc.
Blaunche poudre: ground ginger root with sugar.
Blaunched: almonds with the skin removed.
Bokenade: stew or pottage, thickened with almond milk or eggs.
Borde: the table.
Bought: the central crease or fold in a tablecloth.
Brandrels or Braundrells: white apples
Brawne: the flesh of poultry (chickens, ducks etc) and the boned shoulder of wild boar, cooked in wine, salt and various spices, and kept in the mulled wine until eaten.
Bray: to pound in the motar.
Brewet or Bruet: a broth or meat cooked in a broth.
Browes: a rich meat stock or broth, sometimes with small pieces of meat, thickened with rice flower, breadcrumbs or egg.
Broche: spit roating.
Brytte or Brit: young herring or sprats resembling whitebaite.
Bef. Buf, Buff. Beef.
Balles. Balls or Pellets.
Blank Defire. it is a Potage ‘to be desired’
Bred, Breed. Bread.
Blode. Blod. Blood.
Batour. Batur, Batour. Batter of eggs.
Brek. break, bruise.
Brest, breste. burst.
Bukkennade. a dish or mode of dressing
Bryddes. Briddes. Birds.
Braun. Brawn. Flesh.
Broche. a Spit.
Brewet. composed of Bread and Wine.
Breth. Air, Steam
Bronn. Brun. Brown.
Bynethen. under, beneath.
Bifore. biforne byforne. Before.
Brasey. a compound sauce.
Bloms. Flowers, Blossoms.
Breyt, breth. Broth.
C. omitted, v. Cok. v. pluk. v. Pryk. v. Pekok. v. Phifik. v. thyk. on the contrary it often abounds, hence, schulle, should; fresch, fresh; dische, dish; schepys, sheeps; flesch, flesh; fysch, fish; scher, cheer, &c. in MS. Ed. v. Gl. to Chaucer, v. schal.
Carvon. carved, cut. v. ycorve. v. kerve.
Cumpas. Cumpas. i.e. Compass, by measure, or round.
Corat. name of a dish.
Culdore. Coladers. a Cullender.
Chyballes. Chibolls. young Onions.
Cawdel. Caudell. Contents.
Conynges. Connynges. Coneys. Rabbets.
Calle. Cawl of a Swine.
Connat. a marmolade.
Canuas. Canevas. Kanefas. Canvass.
Coraunte. Raysouns of Coraunte. our Currants, which are small Raisins.
Chargeant. Charchant. Charghaunt. Charchaunt. Chariand. Chariaunt. Stiff.
Colure. to colour.
Col. Cole. Cool, also to strain, cleared.
Cynee. a certain sauce. perhaps the same with Coney.
Chykens. Chekenys. Chyckyns. Checonys. Chicken is a plural itself.
Carnel. of Pork.
Confit, or Confyt. Sweets, Sugar, Sweet
Chese ruayn. perhaps of Rouen in Normandy, signifies the colour we call ‘roan’.
Crems. Creme. Crem. Crym. Cresme. Creme. for singular Cream.
Colyandre. where it is ‘in Confyt rede’, or red. White is also used for garnish
Chyryse. Cheweryes. Chiryes. a made dish of cherries.
Cleeve a two. cloven.
Compost. a preparation supposed to be always at hand.
Chysanne. to be eaten cold.
Congur. the Conger.
Coffyns. Pies raised without their lids, denotes baskets.
Couertour. Coverture. Lid of a Pie.
Chawdoun. for Swans, Chaldron, is a sauce.
Crome. Pulp, Kernel.
Crustards. Pies, from the ‘crust’.
Cryspes. Cryspels. Fritter.
Chawfour. Cowfer. a Chafing dish.
Corose. curiously. perhaps from ‘cure’, to cook.
Cok. a Cock.
Chewets. a pie. a dish.
Do. 1, 2. put, cause. MS. Ed. 2. 12. Chaucer. _make_. 56. done, 48. So Chaucer has _do_ for _done_.
Dof. do off. 101.
Draw. drawen 2. strained, hence 3. 20. 23. _drawe the grewel thurgh straynour_. To boil. 2.17. as, _drawe hem up with gode brothe_. also 51. 74. To put, 14. 41. To make. 28. 47. as, _draw an Almand mylke_.
Dee. 152. singular of Dice, the Fr. De. v. quare.
Drepee. 19 a dish. qu.
Dates. 20. 52. 158. the fruit.
Dyssh. 24. dish.
Dessorre. 37. v. Blank desire.
Doust. 45. alibi Dust.
Dowhz. 50. Dowh. 92. Dow. MS. Ed. II. 29, Dough, Paste. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: dah].
Douce Ame. 63. quast a delicious dish. v. Blank Desire.
Drope. 67. drop, to baste. MS. Ed. 28.
Dorry. Sowpes dorry, 82. Sops endorsed. from _endore_, 187. MS. Ed. 42, II. 6. vide ad 174.
Deel. 113. 170. part, some. v. Sum. Chaucer.
Dicayn. 172. v. ad loc.
Dokks. as _Sowre Dokks_, 173. Docks.
Dorryle. v. Pomme.
Daryols. 183. a dish. A Custard baked in a Crust. Hear Junius, v. Dairie. ‘G. _dariole_ dicitur libi genus, quod iisdem Gallis alias nuncupatur _laicteron_ vel _stan de laict_.’
Desne. v. Blank Desire.
Desire. v. Blank.
Dressit. 194. dressed. dresse. MS. Ed. 15. et passim. Chaucer in voce. hence ydressy. MS. Ed. II. 18.
Dysis. MS. Ed. 15. dice. v. quare.
Demembre, dimembre. MS. Ed. 31. dismember.
Dows, douze. MS. Ed. 50. II. 21.
Drong. MS. Ed. 54. drunk.
E. with _e_ final after the consonant, for _ea_, as brede, bread; benes, beans; bete, beat; breke, break; creme, cream; clere, clear; clene, clean; mede, mead; mete, meat; stede, stead; whete, wheat; &c.
E with _e_ final after the consonant, for _ee_, as betes, beets;
chese, cheese; depe, deep; fete, feet; grene, green; nede, needful; swete, sweet.
Endorre. MS. Ed. 42. endorse.
Ete. 103. eat. _eten_, 146. eaten. _etyn_. MS. Ed. 3. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: etan]. MS. Ed. 48. oat.
Enforse. MS. Ed. II. 20. seasoned.
Erbes. 7. herbs; _herb’s_, 63. _erbys_, 151. Eerbis, 157.
Eyren, and Ayren. 7, 8. 15. Eyryn, S. Ed. 1. Eggs. ‘a merchant at the N. Foreland in Kent asked for eggs, and the good wyf answerede, that she coude speak no Frenshe–another sayd, that he wolde have _eyren_, then the good wyf sayd that she understood hym wel.’ Caxton’s Virgil,
in Lewis’ Life of Caxton, p. 61. who notes ‘See Sewel’s ‘Dictionary, v. _Ey_.’ add, Urry’s Chaucer, v. Aye and Eye. Note here the old plural _en_, that _eggs_ is sometimes used in our Roll, and that in Wicht _eye_, or _ey_ is the singular, and in the _Germ_. See Chaucer. v. _Aie_, and _Ay_.
Eowts. 6. v. ad loc.
Egurdouce. 21. v. ad loc. of Fysshe, 133. Egge dows, MS. Ed. 50. male. Egerduse. ibid. II. 1. Our No. 58, is really an Eagerdouce, but different from this here. A Seville Orange is Aigre-douce. Cotgrave.
Esy. 67. easy. eselich, 113. easily. Chaucer.
Eny. 74. 173. any.
Elena Campana. 78. i.e. Enula Campana, _Elecampane_.
Erbowle. 95. a dish. v. ad loc.
Erbolat. 172. a dish. v. ad loc.
Eerys, Eris. 177. 182. 55. Ears. _Eyr_. MS. Ed. 44. Chaucer has _Ere_ and _Eris_.
Elren. 171. Elder. _Eller_, in the north, without _d_.
Erne. 174. qu.
Euarund. MS. Ed. 3.
Eelys. 101. Eels. _Elys_, _Helys_. MS. Ed. II. 15. 24. _Elis_. Chaucer.
Forced. 3. farced, stuft. we now say, _forc’d-meat_, yfarced, 159, 160. _enforsed_. MS. Ed. II. 20. _fors_, 170. called _fars_, 150. it seems to mean _season_, No. 4. Mixt. 4 where potage is said to be _forced_ with powdour-douce.
Fort. passim. strong. Chaucer.
Fresee. MS. Ed. 47.
Fenkel. 6. 77. _Fenel_, 76. 172. _Fenell_, 100. Fennel. Germ. Venikol. Belg. Venckel.
Forme. Proem. 95. forme.
Funges. 10. Mushrooms, from the French. Cotgrave. Holme III. p. 82. The Romans were fond of them.
Fesants. 20. 35.
Fynelich wel. 192. very wel, constantly.
Fro. 22. MS. Ed. 50. Chaucer. from. So therfro. 53. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 266. Chaucer.
Fleysch. 24. Fleissh, 37. Flesh, A. S. þlaþe. Germ. _Fleisc_.
Feneboyles. MS. Ed. II. 22.
Fyletts. 28. Fillets.
Florish and Flour. 36. 38. 40. Garnish. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 17. 23. Chaucer, v. Floure.
Foyles. 49. rolled Paste. _Foyle of dowhz_, 50. 92. et per se, 148. 53. _Foile of Paste_, 163. Leaves of Sage, 161. Chaucer. v. ad 175. hence Carpe in Foile. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. _a Dolphin in Foyle_, _a suttletie_. VI. p. 5. _Lyng in Foyle_, p. 16. _Cunger_. Ibid. _Samon_. Ibid. _Sturgen_. p. 17. et v. p. 22. N.B. Foyle in these cases means Paste.
Fars. v. forced.
Fle. 53. flea, flaw. MS. Ed. II. 33. flawe, flein, flain, flawed. 10. 13. 15.
Fonnell. 62. a dish.
Frot. MS. Ed. II. 17. rub, shake, _frote_, Chaucer.
Feyre. 66. MS. Ed. II. 18. 22. _Feir_. Chaucer. Fair.
Ferthe. 68. Fourth, hence Ferthing or Farthing.
Furmente. 69. 116. _Furmenty_, MS. Ed. I. _Formete_. Ibid. 48. _Formenty_, Ib. II. 30. from Lat. _Frumentum_, per metathesin; whence called more plausibly _Frumity_ in the north, and Frumetye in Lel. Collect. IV. p. 226. VI. p. 5. 17. 22. but see Junius, v.
Frenche. 73. a dish. v. ad loc.
Fest. MS. II. 18. Feast. Chaucer.
Fygey. 89. because made of Figs. Fygs drawen. 103. MS. Ed. II. 3.
Found. 93. mix. dissolve, 193. fond. 188. v. y fonded. Lye, in Junii Etym. v. Founder.
Fete. 102. Chaucer. Fet, MS. Ed. 44. Feet.
Flaumpeyns. 113. 184.
Ferst. MS. Ed. II. 30. First.
Fanne. 116. to fan or winnow. A. S. pann, Vannus.
Frytour. 149, 150, 151. Fruturs. MS. Ed. 19. 40. Fritters. _Fruter_, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. Frytor. VI. p. 17.
Flaunne. 163. Flownys. MS. Ed. II. 27. Fr. Flans, Custards. Chaucer. v. Slaunnis. Et v. Junium voce _Flawn_.
Feel. 168. hold, contain, perhaps same as _feal_, occultare, abscondere, for which see Junii Etymol.
Fuyre. 188. Fire. _Fyr fort_. 192. a strong Fire. _Fere_, Chaucer. _Fyer_, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 296. Belg. _Vuyn_, _Fere_. MS. Ed. 58.
Ferry. v. Cawdel.
Flowr, Flowre. MS. Ed. 2. 19. Flour.
Fronchemoyle. MS. Ed. 15.
Froys. MS. Ed. 18. Fraise.
Farsure. MS. Ed. 28. stuffing.
Forsy. MS. Ed. 38. season.
Gronden. 1. 53. ground or beaten. _to grynde_ is to cut or beat small. 3. 8. 13. for compare 14. yground 37. 53. 105. to pound or beat in a mortar. 3. MS. Ed. 5.
Gode. No. 1. alibi, good, strong. Chaucer. _god_, MS. Ed. passim.
Grete. mynced. 2. not too small. _gretust_, 189. greatest. _gret_, MS. Ed. 15. and Chaucer.
Gourdes. 8. Fr. gouhourde.
Gobettes. 16. 62. Gobbettys, Gobettis. MS. Ed. 9. alibi. Chaucer. _Gobbins_, Holme III. p. 81, 82. large pieces. Wiclif. Junii Etym.
Grees. 17. 101. Grece, 18. alibi. MS. Ed. 8. 14. 32. alibi, whyte Grece, 18. Fat, Lard, Conys of high Grece. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. qu.
Gravey. 26, 27. _Grave_. MS. Ed. II. 20. _Gravy_. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 10.
Galyntyne. 28. 117. a preparation seemingly made of
Galingale, &c. 129. and thence to take its name. See a recipe for making it, 138. as also in MS. Ed. 9. Bread of Galyntyne, 94. Soupes of Galyntyne, 129. Lampervey in Galantine. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. VI. p. 22. Swanne, VI. p. 5.
Garlete and Garlec. 30. 34. Garlick. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: garleac].
Grapes. 30. 34.
Galyngale. 30. the Powder, 47. the long-rooted Cyperus. Gl. to Chaucer. See Northumberland Book, P. 415.
Gleyre. of Ayrenn. 59. the white, from Fr. glaire. Chaucer. _Lear_ or _Leir_ of an Egg. Holme interprets it _the White beaten into a foam_.
Goon. 59. MS. Ed. 1. go. Belg. _gaen_.
Gylofre. 65. Gelofre. MS. Ed. 27. cloves; for see No. 30, 31. 40. there; from Gr. [Greek: charuophullon].
Gyngawdry. 94. a dish.
Grave. MS. Ed. II. 20. Gravey.
Gele. 101, 102. Jelly. Fr. Gelee.
Gawdy Grene. 112. perhaps, Light Green.
Greynes de Parys. 137. and so Chaucer, meaning _Greynes de paradys_, or greater Cardamoms. See Dr. Percy on Northumb. Book, p. 414. Chaucer has _Greines_ for _Grains_. and Belg. Greyn.
Grate. 152. v. i or y grated.
Gastbon. 194. f. _Gastbon_, quasi _Wastbon_, from _Wastel_ the finest Bread, which see. Hence the Fr. Gasteau.
Gyngynyr, Gyngenyr, Gyngyner, Gyngener. MS. Ed. 3, 4. 13. 24. Ginger. Gyngyner-bred, 32.
Grotys. MS. Ed. II. Oat-meal Grotes, i.e. Grits.
Grydern, Grydern, Gredern. MS. Ed. 25. 44. II. 11.
H. for _th_, as hem, them; her, their; passim. _Hare_, 121. Chaucer. Wiclif. It is sometimes omitted; as _wyt_ and _wyte_, white. Sometimes abounds, as schaldyd. MS. Ed. 7. II. scalded. v. _Thowehe_.
Hye. Proem. high. _hy_, MS. Ed. 44. A. S. Heah.
Hem. 1, 2. i.e. hem; them. Lye in Junii Etym.
Hulle. 1. a verb, to take off the husk or skin. Littleton. Hence Hulkes, Husks or _Hulls_, as 71. _Holys_, MS. Ed. 1. Sax. helan, to cover. v. Lye in Junii Etym. v. Hull.
Hulkes. v. Hulle.
Hewe. 7. cut, mince. _yhewe_, 12. minced, hewn. MS. Ed. 6. 9. _hewin_, Chaucer. A. S. heþyan.
Hakke. 194. MS. Ed. 23. hack, bruise. Junii Etym. v. hack. MS. Ed. has also _hak_ and _hac_.
Hebolace. 7. name of a dish.
Herdeles. MS. Ed. 56. Hurdles.
Hennes. 17. 45. including, I presume, the whole species, as _Malard_ and _Pekok_ do below.
Hool. 20. 22. alibi. _hole_, 33. 175. _hoole_, 158. whole. Chaucer has hole, hool, and hoolich; and Wiclif, _hole_ and _hool_. MS. Ed. has _hol_ and _hole_.
Hooles. 162. Holes.
Holsomly. Proem, wholesomely.
Herthe. MS. Ed. 57. Earth.
Hit. 20. 98. 152. it. hytt. Northumb. Book, p. 440. _Hit_, Gloss. Wiclif. in Marg. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: hit].
Hoot. 21. alibi. hot.
Hoggepot. 31. v. ad loc.
Hochee. 34. hache, Fr. but there is nothing to intimate cutting them to pieces.
Hersyve. MS. Ed. II. 2. Hair-sieve. _her_ is _hair_ in Chaucer.
Helde. 50. 154. throw, cast, put. v. 189. _Heelde_, poured, shed. Wiclif. and Lye in Junii Etym. v. Held.
Holde. 189. make, keep. MS. Ed. II. 32, 33.
Hawtheen. 57. Hawthorn. Junius, v. Haw.
Hatte. 59. bubling, wallop. quasi _the hot_, as in Chaucer. from A.Sax. [Anglo-Saxon: hatt].
Hong. 67. hing, or hang. Chaucer. MS. Ed. 48.
Honde. 76. hand. Chaucer. So in Derbyshire now.
Heps. 84. Fruit of the Canker-rose. So now in Derbyshire, and v. Junius, voce _Hippes_.
Hake. 94. 186. a Fish. v. ad loc.
Hilde. 109. to skin, from to hull, to scale a fish, 119. vide 117. 119. compared with MS. Ed. II. 13.
Herons. 146. MS. Ed. 3. Holme, III. p. 77, 78. but little used now. Heronsew. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. _Heronshawe_. VI. p. I. Heronsews. Chaucer. The Poulterer was to have in his shop _Ardeas sive airones_, according to Mr. Topham’s MS. written about 1250. And _Heronns_ appear at E. of Devon’s Feast.
Holke. 173. qu. hollow.
Hertrowee. 176. a dish. _Hert_ is _the Hart_ in Chaucer, A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: heort].
Hi. MS. Ed. 27. they.
Hevyd. MS. Ed. 21. v. ad loc.
Hom. MS. Ed. 56. Home.
I. 2. for e. Proem. So _ith_ for _eth_. Ibid.
in. 30. et sapius. in. _inne_, 37. alibi.
Jushell. 43. a dish. v. ad loc.
Is. plur. for es. 52. 73. Proem. Nomblys. MS. Ed. 12. Nombles. v. Pees. Rosys, 177, Roses.
I. for y. v. y.
Iowtes. v. Eowtes.
Irne. 107. _Iren_, Chaucer. and the Saxon. Iron.
Juys. 118. 131. _Jus_, MS. Ed. II. 17. the Fr. word, _Ieuse_, Chaucer.
Kerve. 8. cut. _kerf_, 65. MS Ed. 29. v. carvon, and Chaucer, voc. Carfe, karft, kerve, kerft.
Kydde. 21. Flesh of a Kid. Kedys. MS. Ed. 13. Kids.
Keel. 29. 167. 188. MS. Ed. 1. Gl. to Chaucer and Wiclif, to cool.
Kyt. 118. alibi. MS. Ed. 19. _ket_, Ibid. II. 15. to cut. _kyted_, cut. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 298. Chaucer, v. _Kitt_.
Keintlick. v. queintlick.
Kyrnels. 189. a species of battlements, from _kernellare_; for which see Spelman, Du Fresne, and Chaucer.
Kever. MS. Ed. 2. cover.
Kaste, kest. MS. Ed. 6. 10. cast. v. ad loc.
Kow. MS. Ed. 38. Cow.
L. for ll. MS. Ed. sape.
Lat. 9. 14. alibi. MS. Ed. 1, 2. Let. Chaucer. Belg. _laten. latyn_. MS. Ed, II. 5. _let_.
Lire, and Lyre. 3. 14. 45. MS. Ed. sape. the fleshy part of Meat. A.S. [Anglo-Sxon: lire]. See Lyre in Junii Etymol. Also a mixture, as _Dough of Bread and raw Eggs_, 15. hence ‘drawe a Lyre of Brede, Blode, Vyneg, and Broth,’ 25. So Lyour and Layour. II. 31. all from _lye_, which see. Lay seems to mean _mix_, 31. as _layour_ is mixture, 94.
Lye it up. 15. to mix; as _alye_, which see.
Leke. in sing. 10. 76. Leeks.
Langdebef. 6. an herb. v. ad loc. _Longdobeefe_ Northumberland Book. p. 384. Bugloss.
Lytel. 19. passim. _Litul_ and _litull_, 104. 152. ‘a litel of Vynegar,’ 118. of Lard, 152.
Loseyns, Losyns. 24. 92. on fish-day, 128. a Lozenge is interpreted by Cotgrave, ‘a little square Cake of preserved herbs, flowers, &c.’ but that seems to have no concern here. _Lozengs_. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227.
Lyche. 152. like. _lichi_. Wiclif. _lich_. Chaucer. _ylich_. Idem.
Lombe. 62. Lamb. hence Wiclif, _Lomberen_, Lambs. Chaucer, and Germ.
Leche Lumbard. 65. from the country doubtless, as the mustard, No. 100. See also Lel. Coll. VI. p. 6. 26. _Leches_. MS. Ed. 15. are Cakes, or pieces. Rand. Holme makes _Leach_, p. 83. to be ‘a kind of Jelly made of Cream, Ising-glass, Sugar, and Almonds, &c.’ The _Lessches_ are fried, 158. v. yleeshyd. _Leyse Damask_. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. _Leche baked_. VI. p. 5. _Partriche Leiche_. Ibid. _Leche Damaske_. Ibid. See also, p. 10. _Leche Florentine_, p. 17. _Leche Comfort_. Ibid. _Leche Gramor_. Ibid. Leche Cypres, p. 26. which in Godwin de Prasul. p. 697. is _Sipers_, male.
Lete Lardes. 68. v. ad loc.
Lave. 76. wash.
Leyne. 82. a Layer.
Lewe water. 98. Lews water, MS. Ed. II. 10. warm; see Gloss. to Wiclif. and Junius. v. Lukewarm.
Lumbard Mustard. 100. from the country. v. Leche. how made, No. 145.
Lef. MS. Ed. 56. leave. _Lefe_, Chaucer.
Lite. 104. a few, _alite_, as they speak in the North. Chaucer, v. Lite, and Lyte, and Mr. Lye in his Junius.
Laumpreys. 126. Lampreys, an Eel-like Sea Fish. Pennant, Brit. Zool. III. p. 68.
Laumprons. 127. the _Pride_. Pennant, Ibid. p. 61. See Lel. Coll. VI. p. 6. 17. bis 23. Mr. Topham’s MS. has _Murenulas sive Lampridulas_.
Looches, Loches. 130. 133. the fish.
Lardes of Swyne. 146. i.e. of Bacon. hence _lardid_, 147. and _Lardons_. MS. Ed. 3. 43. from the Fr. which Cotgrave explains _Slices of Lard_, i.e. Bacon. vide ad 68.
Lorere tre. MS. Ed. 55. Laurel tree. Chaucer.
Lyuours. 152. Livers. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: lyper].
Led. MS. Ed. 56. carry. _lide_, Chaucer.
Lenton. 158. Lent.
Lynger. 159. longer. Chaucer has _longer_ and _lengir_. v. Lange.
Lopuster, Lopister. MS. Ed. II. 7. 16. v. Junii Etymolog.
Lust. as, hym lust. Proem, he likes. Chaucer, v. Lest.
Lewys. MS. Ed. 41. Leaves. Lefe, Chaucer. v. Lef.
Lie. Liquor. Chaucer. MS. Ed. 48.
Ley. MS. Ed. 6. lay.
Lese, les. MS. Ed, 14. II. 7, 8. pick. To _lease_, in Kent, is to glean.
Make. 7. MS. Ed. 12. 43. II. 12. to dress. _make forth_, 102. to do. MS. Ed. II. 35.
Monchelet. 16. a dish.
Mylk, Melk. MS. II. 30. Milk of Almonds, 1. 10. 13. alibi.
Moton. 16. MS. Ed. 1. Mutton, See Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. Flemish. _Motoen_.
Mawmenee. 20. 193. a dish. v. ad loc. how made, 194. _Mamane_. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. Mamonie. VI. p. 17. 22. royal, 29. Manmene, MS. Ed. 29, 30. _Mamenge_. E. of Devon’s Feast.
Morterelys. v. Mortrews.
Medle. 20. 50. alibi. to mix. Wiclif. Chaucer.
Messe. to messe the dysshes, 22. messe forth, 24.
Morre. 38. MS. Ed. 37. II. 26. a dish. v. ad loc.
Mortrews. 45. _Mortrews blank_, 46. of fish, 125. _Morterelys_, MS. Ed. 5. where the recipe is much the same. ‘meat made of boiled hens, crummed bread, yolk of eggs, and safron, all boiled together,’ Speght ad Chaucer. So called, fays Skinner, who Writes it _mortress_, because the ingredients are all pounded together in a mortar.
Moscels. 47. Morsels. Chaucer has _Morcills_. Moscels is not amiss, as _Mossil_ in Chaucer is the muzle or mouth.
Mete. 67. A.S. and Chaucer. Meat. _Meetis_, Proem. Meats. It means also _properly_, MS. Ed. II. 21. Chaucer.
Myng. 68. MS. Ed. 30. _ming_, 76. meng, 127. 158. MS. Ed. 32. Chaucer. to mix. So _mung_, 192. is to stir. Wiclif. v. Mengyng. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: mengan].
Morow. at Morow. 72. in the Morning. MS. Ed. 33. a Morrow, Chaucer. on the Morow. Lei. Coll. IV. p. 234.
Makke. 74. a dish.
Meel, Mele. 86. 97. Meal. _Melis_, Meals. Chaucer. Belg. _Meel_.
Macrows. 62. Maccharone. vide ad locum.
Muskles, Muskels. 122. Muscles. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: murcule].
Malard, Maulard. 141. meaning, I presume, both sexes, as ducks are not otherwise noticed. Holme, III. p. 77. and Mr. Topham’s MS.
Mylates, whyte. 153. a dish of pork, 155.
Myddell. 170. midle. _myddes_. 175. the same.
Mawe. 176. Stomach of a Swine. Chaucer. Junii Etym.
Moold. 177. Mould.
Maziozame. 191. Marjoram. See the various orthographies in Junius, v. Majoram.
Male Marrow. 195. qu.
Moyle. v. Ris. v. Fronchemoyle.
Mulberries. 99. 132. v. Morree.
Myce, myse. MS. Ed. 8. 15. mince, myed. II. 19. minced, ymyed, 35. for ymyced. myney, II. 3. myneyd, II. 1.
Mo. MS. Ed. 38. more. Chaucer.
Maner. _of_ omitted. MS. Ed. 45. 47, 48. II. 2. 28.
Mad, ymad. MS. Ed. II. 9. made.
Mychil. MS. Ed. 48, much. Chaucer, v. moche. Junius v. mickel.
Myntys. MS. Ed. II. 15. Mint. _Myntys_, Brit.
A Nost, I. crasis of _an Oste_, or Kiln; frequent in Kent, where _Hop-oste_ is the kiln for drying hops. ‘Oost or East: the same that kiln or kill, Somersetshire, and elsewhere in the west,’ Ray. So _Brykhost_ is a Brick-kiln in Old Parish-Book of _Wye_ in Kent, 34 H. VIII. ‘We call _est_ or _oft_ the place in the house, where the smoke ariseth; and in some manors _austrum_ or _ostrum_ is that, where a fixed chimney or flew anciently hath been,’ Ley, in Hearne’s Cur. Disc. p. 27. _Mannors_ here means, I suppose manor-houses, as is common in the north. Hence _Haister_, for which see Northumb. Book, p. 415. 417. and Chaucer, v. Estris.
Noumbles. 11. 13. Entrails of any beast, but confined now to those of a deer. I suspect a crasis in the case, quasi _an Umble_, singular for what is plural now, from Lat. _Umbilicus_. We at this day both say and write _Umbles_. _Nombles_, MS. Ed. 12. where it is _Nomblys of the venyson_, as if there were other Nomblys beside. The Fr. write Nombles.
Non. 68. no. Chaucer. A.S. nan.
Nyme. 114. take, _recipe_. Sax. niman. Chaucer. used in MS. Ed. throughout. See Junius. v. Nim.
Notys. 144. Wallenotes, 157. So _Not_, MS. Ed. II. 30. Chaucer. Belg. Note.
Nysebek. 173. a dish. quasi, nice for the _Bec_, or Mouth.
Nazt, nozt. MS. Ed. 37. not.
Oynons. 2. 4. 7. Fr. Oignons. Onions.
Orage. 6. Orache.
Other, oother. 13, 14. 54. 63. MS Ed. sape. Chaucer. Wiclif. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: oþer]. or.
On, oon. 14. 20. alibi. in. as in the Saxon. _One_ MS. Ed 58. II. 21. Chaucer.
Obleys. 24. a kind of Wafer, v. ad loc.
Onys. MS. Ed. 37. once, _ones_, Chaucer, v. _Atones_, and _ones_.
Onoward, onaward. 24. 29. 107. onward, upon it.
Of. omitted, as powder Gynger, powder Gylofre, powder Galyngale. abounds, v. Lytel.
Oot. 26. alibi. Oat. Otyn. MS. Ed. II. Oaten.
Opyn. MS. Ed. 28. open.
Offall. 143. _Exta_, Giblets.
Oystryn. MS. Ed. II. 14. Oysters.
Of. Proem. by.
Ochepot. v. Hochepot.
Ovene. i. Oven. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: oren]. Belg. Oven. _0vyn_, MS. Ed. II. 16.
Olyve, de Olyve, Olyf, Dolyf, MS. Ed. Olive.
Owyn. MS. Ed. 22. own.
Plurals increase a syllable, Almandys, Yolkys, Cranys, Pecokys, &c. So now in Kent in words ending in _st_. This is Saxon, and so Chaucer.
Plurals in _n_, Pisyn, Hennyn, Appelyn, Oystrin.
Powdon douce. 4. Pref.
Powdon fort. 10, ii. v. Pref.
Pasturnakes. 5. seems to mean _Parsnips_ or Carrots, from _Pastinaca_. _Pasternak of Rasens_, 100. of Apples, 149. means Pastes, or Paties.
Persel. 6. 29. alibi. _Persele_ MS. Ed. II. 15. Fr. _Persil_. Parsley. Parcyle. MS. Ed. 32.
Pyke, pike. 18. 76. pick. Chaucer, v. Pik.
Pluk. 76. pluck, pull. A. S. pluccian.
Pellydore. 19. v. ad loc.
Peletour. 104. v. ad 19.
Paast. MS. Ed. II. 29. Paste.
Potell. 20. Pottle.
Pyncs. 20. alibi, v. Pref.
Pecys. 21. alibi. _Pece_, 190. _Pecis_, MS. Ed. 12. Chaucer. Pieces, Piece, i.
Peper. 21. 132. MS. Ed. i6. has _Pepyr_. Pip. 140. 143. MS. Ed. 9. _Pepper_. A. S. peopor and pipor.
Papdele. 24. a kind of sauce. probably from _Papp_, a kind of _Panada_.
Pise, Pisyn, MS. Ed. 2. Pease.
Peers. 130. 138. _Pers_, 167. Perys, MS. Ed. II. 23. Pears. Pery, a Pear tree, Chaucer.
Possynet. 30. 160. a Posnet.
Partruches. 35. 147. _Partyches_, Contents. Partridges. _Perteryche_, E. of Devon’s Feast.
Panne. 39. 50. a Pan. A.S. Panna.
Payndemayn. 60. 139. where it is _pared_. Flour. 41. 162. 49, white Bread. Chaucer.
Par. MS. Ed. 19. pare.
Peions. 18. 154. Pigeons. If you take _i_ for _j_, it answers to modern pronunciation, and in E. of Devon’s Feast it is written Pejonns, and Pyjonns.
Pynnonade. 51. from the Pynes of which it is made. v. Pynes. _Pynade_ or _Pivade_. MS. Ed. II. 32.
Pryk. 53. prick. Pettels. 56. Legs. We now say _the Pestels of a lark_. of veneson, Lel. Collect. IV. p. 5. Qu. a corruption of _Pedestals_.
Payn foindew. 59. _fondew_, Contents, v. ad loc.
Peskodde. 65. Hull or Pod of Pease, used still in the North. v. Coddis in Wiclif, and Coddes in Junii Etymolog.
Payn Ragoun. 67. a dish. qu.
Payn puff, or puf. 196. _Payne puffe_. E. of Devon’s Feast.
Pownas. 68. a colour. qu. v. Preface.
Porpays, Porpeys. 69. 108. salted, 116. roasted, 78. _Porpus_ or Porpoise. _Porpecia_, Spelm. Gl. v. Geaspecia, which he corrects _Seaspecia_. It is surprising he did not see it must be _Graspecia_ or _Craspiscis_, i.e. _Gros_ or _Crassus Piscis_, any large fish; a common term in charters, which allow to religious houses or others the produce of the sea on their coasts. See Du Cange in vocibus. We do not use the Porpoife now, but both these and Seals occur in Archb. Nevill’s Feast. See Rabelais, IV. c. 60. and I conceive that the _Balana_ in Mr. Topham’s MS. means the Porpus.
Perrey. 70. v. ad loc.
Pesoun. 70, 71. _ Pise, Pisyn.,_ MS. Ed. 2. Pease. Brit. _Pysen._
Partye. 71. _a partye,_ i.e. some. MS. Ed. 2. Chaucer.
Porrectes. 76. an herb. v. ad loc.
Purslarye. 76. Purslain.
Pochee. 90. a dish of poached Eggs, v. Junius, voce _Poach._
Powche. 94. Crop or Stomach of a fish. _Paunches,_ 114, 115.
Pyke. ici. the fish. v. ad loc.
Plays. 101. 105. 112. Plaise; the fish. _Places,_ Lel. Coll. VI. p.6.
Pelettes. 11. Balls. Pellets. Pelotys. MS. Ed. 16.
Paunch. v. Powche.
Penne. 116. a Feather, or Pin. MS. Ed. 28. Wiclif. v. Pennes.
Pekok. 147. Peacock. _Pekokys,_ MS. Ed. 4. where same direction occurs. Pekok. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227.
presse. 150. to press. Chaucer.
Pyner. 155. qu. v. Pref.
Prunes. 164. Junius in v. _Prunes and Damysyns._. 167. _Prunes Damysyns_. 156. 158. _Primes,_ 169. should be corrected _Prunes._ Prunys, MS. Ed. II. 17. _Prognes._ Lel. Coll. VI. p. 17. _ Prune Orendge,_ an Orange Plumb, p. 23. _Prones,_ Northumb. Book, p.19. plant it with Prunes, 167. stick it, Lel. Coll. VI. p.5. 16 22. As the trade with Damascus is mentioned in the Preface, we need not wonder at finding the Plumbs here.
Primes, v. Prunes.
Prews of gode past. 176. qu.
Potews. 177. a dish named from the pots used.
Pety peruant. 195. _Petypanel, a marchpayne._ Lel. Coll. VI. p.6.
Parade. hole parade. 195. qu.
Plater. MS. Ed. II. 9. Platter.
Puff. v. Payn.
Phitik. Proem. Physick.
Poumegarnet. 84. Poungarnetts, MS. Ed. 39. Powmis gernatys. Ibid. 27. Pomgranates, per metathesin.
Penche. MS. Ed. 36.
Partyns. MS. Ed. 38. Parts.
Pommedorry. MS. Ed. 42. Poundorroge, 58. _Pomes endoryd_. E. of Devon’s Feast.
Pommys morles. MS. Ed. II. 3.
Porreyne. MS. Ed. II. 17. Porrey Chapeleyn, 29.
Quare. 5. It seems to mean to quarter, or to square, to cut to pieces however, and may be the same as to _dyce_. 10. 60. Dice at this time were very small: a large parcel of them were found under the floor of the hall of one of the Temples, about 1764, and were so minute as to have dropt at times through the chinks or joints of the boards. There were near 100 pair of ivory, scarce more than two thirds as large as our modern ones. The hall was built in the reign of Elizabeth. To
_quare_ is from the Fr. quarrer; and _quayre_ or _quaire_, subst. in Chaucer, Skelton, p. 91. 103. is a book or pamphlet, from the paper being in the quarto form. See Annal. Dunstap. p. 215, Ames, Typ. Antiq. p. 3. 9. Hence our quire of paper. The later French wrote _cahier_, _cayer_, for I presume this may be the same word. Hence, _kerve hem to dyce_, into small squares, 12. _Dysis_, MS. Ed. 15.
Quybibes. 64. Quibibz. MS. Ed. 54. alibi. Cubebs.
Quentlich. 162. keyntlich, 189. nicely, curiously. Chaucer. v. _Queintlie_.
Quayle. 162. perhaps, cool. it seems to mean fail or miscarry. Lel. Coll. VI. p. II. sink or be dejected, p. 41. See Junius, v. Quail.
Queynchehe. 173. f. queynch. but qu.
R. and its vowel are often transposed. v. Bryddes, brennyng, Crudds, Poumegarnet, &c.
Rapes. 5. Turneps. Lat. _Rapa_, or _Rapum_. vide Junium in voce.
Ryse. 9. 194. Rys, 36. alibi. MS. Ed. 14. Ryys, 192. the Flower, 37. Rice. Fr. Ris. Belg. Riis.
Roo. 14. Roe, the animal.
Rede. 21. alibi, red. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: read].
Roost. 30. alibi, rowsted, 175. substantive, 53. to rost. Belg. roosten.
Rether. Ms. Ed. 43. a beast of the horned kind.
Ramme. 33. to squeeze. but qu.
Rennyns. 65. perhaps, _rennyng_, i. e. thin, from _renne_, to run. Leland Itin. I. p. 5, 6. alibi. Skelton, p. 96. 143. alibi. indeed most of our old authors. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 287, 288. Chaucer.
Ruayn. v. Chese.
Rape. 83. a dish with no turneps in it. Quare if same as _Rapil_, Holme III. p. 78. Rapy, MS. Ed. 49.
Resmolle. 96. a dish. v. ad loc.
Ryal. 99. _ryallest_. Proem. royal. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 250. 254. VI. p. 5. bis. 22. Chaucer. v. Rial.
Rote. 100. Root. _Rotys_, MS. Ed. 32. Chaucer. Junius, v. Root.
Roo Broth. MS. Ed. 53.
Roche. 103. the fish. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 6.
Rygh. 105. a fish. perhaps the Ruffe.
Rawnes. 125. Roes of fish. _Lye_ in Junius. v. Roan.
Rest. MS. Ed. rustied, of meat. Restyn, restyng. No. 57. Rustiness. Junius. v. Restie.
Rasyols. 152. a dish. _Ransoles_. Holme III. p. 84.
Reyn. Ms. Ed. 57. Rain. Chaucer.
Rysshews. 182. name of a dish. qu.
Rew de Rumsey. MS. Ed. 44.
Ryne hem on a Spyt. 187. run them on a spit.
Rosty. MS. Ed. 44. rost.
Rounde. 196. round. French.
Rosee. 52. a dish. v. ad loc.
Resenns. 100. Raysons, 114. Raisins. used of Currants, 14. v. ad loc. _Reysons_, _Reysins_. MS. Ed. II. 23. 42. _Rassens_ Pottage, is in the second course at archp. Nevill’s Feast.
Spine. v. Spynee.
Sue forth. 3. et passim. serue. 6. 21. From this short way of writing, and perhaps speaking, we have our _Sewers_, officers of note, and _sewingeis_, serving, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 291. unless mis-written or mis-printed for _shewinge_.
Slype. II. slip or take off the outer coat. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: slipan].
Skyrwates. 5. 149. Skirrits or Skirwicks.
Savory. 6. Sauuay. 30. 63. Sawey. 172.
Self. 13. same, made of itself, as self-broth, 22. the owne broth, 122. MS. Ed. 5. 7. Chaucer.
Seth. passim. MS. Ed. I, 2. Chaucer, to seeth. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: seothan]. Seyt. MS. Ed. I. to strain. 25. 27.
Smite and smyte. 16. 21. 62. cut, hack. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: smitan].
Sode. v. Ysode.
Storchion. MS. Ed. II. 12. v. Fitz-Stephen. p. 34.
Sum. 20. sumdell, 51. somdel, 171. some, a little, some part. Chaucer has _sum_, and _somdele_. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: sum].
Saunders. 20. used for colouring. MS. Ed. 34. v. Northumb. Book, p. 415. Sandall wood. The translators of that very modern book the Arabian Nights Entertainments, frequently have _Sanders_ and Sandal wood, as a commodity of the East.
Swyne. 146. alibi. Pork or Bacon. MS. Ed. 3. Bacon, on the contrary, is sometimes used for the animal. Old Plays, II. p. 248. Gloss. ad X Script. in v.
See. MS. Ed. 56. Sea. Chaucer.
Sawge. 29. _Sauge_, 160. MS. Ed. 53. Sage. _Pigge en Sage_. E. of Devon’s Feast.
Shul. 146. schul. MS. Ed. 4. should, as No. 147. schulle, schullyn. MS. Ed. 3. 7.
Sawse Madame. 30. qu. Sauce.
Sandale. MS. Ed. 34.
Sawse Sarzyne. 84. v. ad loc.
Serpell. 140. wild Thyme. _Serpyllum_.
Sawse blancke. 136.
Sawse noyre. 137. 141.
Sawse verde. 140.
Sow. 30. to sew, _suere_. also 175. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: siwian].
Stoppe. 34. 48. to stuff.
Swyng. 39. 43. alibi. MS. Ed. 20. 25. alibi. to shake, mix. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: swengan].
Sewe. 20. 29. 40. Sowe. 30. 33. alibi. MS. Ed. 38. Chaucer. Liquor, Broth, Sous. Wiclif. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: seaþ]. v. Lye in 2d alphabet.
Schyms. MS. Ed. 38. Pieces.
Stondyng. 45, 46. 7. stiff, thick.
Smale. 53. alibi. small. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 194.
Spynee. 57. v. ad loc.
Straw. 58. strew. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: streawian].
Sklyse. 59. a Slice, or flat Stick for beating any thing. Junius. v. Sclise.
Siryppe. 64. v. ad loc.
Styne. 66. perhaps to close. v. ystyned. A. S. tynan.
Stere. 67. 145. to stir. Chaucer. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: styrian].
Sithen. 68. ssithen, 192. then. Chaucer. v. seth and sithe. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: sieean]. sithtyn, sethe, seth, syth. MS. Ed. _then_.
Salat. 76 a Sallad. Saladis, Sallads. Chaucer. Junius, v. Salad.
Slete Soppes. 80. slit. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: slitan].
Spryng. 85. to sprinkle. Wiclif. v. sprenge. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: sprengan].
Samoun. 98. Salmon. So Lel. Coll. VI. p. 16, 17. Fr. _Saumon_.
Stepid. 109, 110. steeped, _Frisiis_, stippen.
Sex. 113. 176. Six. A. S.
Sool. 119. _Solys_, 133. Soale, the fish.
Schyl oysters. 121. to shell them. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: scyll], a shell.
Sle. 126. to kill. _Scle_, Chaucer, and _slea_. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: slean].
Sobre Sawse. 130.
Sowpes. 82. 129. Sops. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: sop]. dorry. MS. Ed. II. 6.
Spell. 140. qu.
Stary. MS. Ed. 32. stir.
Swannes. 143. Pye, 79. Cygnets. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5.
Sonne. MS. Ed. 56. Sun. Chaucer.
Sarse, and _a Sarse_. 145. a Sieve or Searse.
Souple. 152. supple. _sople_, Chaucer; also _souple_. Fr.
Stewes. 157. 170. Liquor. to stue, 186. a term well known at this day.
Sars. 158. 164. Error perhaps for _Fars_. 167. 169. 172.
Sawcyster. 160. perhaps, a Saussage. from Fr. _Saucisse_.
Soler. MS. Ed. 56. a solar or upper floor. Chaucer.
Sawgeat. 161. v. ad loc.
Skymour. 162. a Skimmer.
Salwar. 167. v. Calwar.
Sarcyness. MS. Ed. 54. v. Sawse.
Syve, Seve. MS. Ed. II. 17, 18. a Sieve, v. Hersyve.
Southrenwode. 172. Southernwood.
Sowre. 173. sour. _souir_, Chaucer.
Stale. 177. Stalk. Handle. used now in the North, and elsewhere; as a fork-stale; quare a crasis for a fork’s tail. Hence, Shaft of an Arrow. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 13. Chaucer. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: stele], or [Anglo-Saxon: stela].
Spot. MS. Ed. 57. Sprinkle.
Sachus. 178. a dish. v. ad loc.
Sachellis. 178. Bags. Satchells.
Spynoches. 180. Spinages. Fr. Espinars in plural. but we use it in the singular. Ital. Spinacchia.
Sit. 192. adhere, and thereby to burn to it. It obtains this sense now in the North, where, after the potage has acquired a most disagreeable taste by it, it is said to be _pot-sitten_, which in Kent and elsewhere is expressed by being _burnt-to_.
Sotiltees. Proem. Suttlety. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5. seq. See No. 189. There was no grand entertainment without these. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226, 227. VI. 21. seq. made of sugar and wax. p. 31. and when they were served, or brought in, _at first_, they seem to have been called _warners_, Lel. Coll. VI. p. 21. 23. VI. p. 226, 227. as giving _warning_ of the approach of dinner. See Notes on Northumb. Book, p. 422, 423. and Mr. Pennant’s Brit. Zool. p. 496. There are three _sotiltes_ at the E. of Devon’s Feast, a stag, a man, a tree. Quere if now succeeded by figures of birds, &c. made in lard, and jelly, or in sugar, to decorate cakes.
Sewyng. Proem. following. Leland Coll. IV. p. 293. Chaucer. Fr.
Spete. MS. Ed. 28. Spit. made of hazel, 58. as Virg. Georg. II. 396.
States. Proem. Persons.
Scher. MS. Ed. 25. sheer, cut. Chaucer. v. Shere.
Schyveris. MS. Ed. 25. II. 27. Shivers. Chaucer. v. Slivere.
Schaw. MS. Ed. 43. shave.
Thurgh. 3. alibi. thorough. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: eurh]. _thorw_. MS. Ed. II.
Tansey. 172. Herb, vide Junii Etymol.
Trape, Traup. 152. alibi. Pan, platter, dish. from Fr.
To gedre. 14. to gydre, 20. to gyder, 39. to geyder, 53. to gider, 59. to gyd, 111. to gedre, 145. So variously is the word _together_ here written. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: togaeere].
Tredure. 15. name of Cawdel. v. ad loc.
To. 30. 17. MS. Ed. 33. 42. too; and so the Saxon, Hence to to. 17. v. ad loc. Also, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 181. 206. VI. p. 36. _To_ is _till_, MS. Ed. 26. 34. _two_. II. 7. v. Unto.
Thyk. 20. a Verb, to grow thick, as No. 67. thicken taken passively. Adjective, 29. 52. _thik_, 57. _thykke_, 85. _thike_, Chaucer.
Teyse. 20. to pull to pieces with the fingers. v. ad loc. et Junius, voce Tease. Hence teasing for carding wool with teasels, a specics of thistle or instrument.
Talbotes. 23. qu. v. ad loc.
Tat. 30. that. as in Derbysh. _who’s tat?_ for, who is that? Belg. _dat_.
Thenne. 36. alibi. then. Chaucer. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: eanne].
Thanne. 36. MS. Ed. 25. then. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: ean]. than. MS. Ed. 14.
Teer. 36. Tear. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: teran].
To fore. 46. alibi. before. Hence our _heretofore_. Wiclif. Chaucer.
A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: toforan].
Thynne. 49. MS. Ed. 15. thin. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: einn].
Tarlettes. 50. afterwards _Tartletes_, rectius; and so the Contents. _Tortelletti_. Holme. p. 85. v. Tartee. Godwin, de Prasul. p. 695. renders _Streblita_; et v. Junius, voce Tart.
Thise. 53. alibi. these.
Take. 56. taken. Chaucer.
Thridde. 58. 173. alibi. Third, per metathesin. Chaucer. Thriddendele, 67. Thriddel, 102. 134. _Thredde_, MS. Ed. II. 1. v. Junius, voce Thirdendeal.
To done. 68. done. _To_ seems to abound, vide Chaucer. v. _To_.
Turnesole. 68. colours _pownas_. vide ad loc.
Ther. 70. 74. they. Chaucer.
Ton tressis. 76. an herb. I amend it to _Ton cressis_, and explain it Cresses, being the Saxon [Anglo-Saxon: tunkerse], or [Anglo-Saxons: tuncarse]. See _Lye_, Dict. Sax. Cresses, so as to mean, _one of the Cresses_.
Tried out. 117. drawn out by roasting. See Junius, v. Try.
Tweydel. 134. Twey, MS. Ed. 12. Chaucer. _Twy_ for _twice_ runs now in the North. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: twa], two. [Anglo-Saxon dal], pars, portio.
Talow. 159. Mutton Sewet. v. Junii Etym.
Thyes, Thyys. MS. Ed. 29, 30. Thighs.
Tartee. 164, 165. alibi. Tart. de Bry, 166. de Brymlent, 117. Tartes of Flesh, 168. of Fish, 170. v. Tarlettes.
Towh. tough, thick. 173. See Chaucer, v. Tought. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: toh].
Tharmys. MS. Ed. 16. Rops, Guts.
There. 170. 177 where. Chaucer.
Thowche. MS. Ed. 48. touch.
To. 185. for. Hence, _wherto_ is _wherefore_. Chaucer.
Towayl. MS. Ed. II. 21. a Towel.
Thee. 189. thou, as often now in the North.
Temper. MS. Ed. 1. et sape. to mix.
Uppon. 85. alibi. upon.
Urchon. 176. Urchin, _Erinaceus_.
Unto. MS. Ed. 2. until. v. _To_. Chaucer.
Violet. 6. v. ad loc.
Verjous. 12. 48. veriaws. 154. verious. 15. Verjuice, Fr. Verjus. V. Junium.
Veel. 16. alibi. MS. Ed. 18. Veal.
Vessll. 29. a dish.
Vyne Grace. 61. a mess or dish. _Grees_ is the wild Swine. Plott, Hist. of Staff. p. 443. Gloss. to Douglas’ Virgil, v. Grisis. and to Chaucer. v. Grys. Thoroton, p. 258. Blount, Tenures. p. 101. _Gresse_. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 243. _Gres_. 248. Both pork and wine enter into the recipe.
Vyaunde Cypre. 97. from the Isle of Cyprus.
Vernage. 132. Vernaccia. a sort of Italian white-wine. In Pref. to _Perlin_, p. xix. mis-written Vervage. See Chaucer. It is a sweet wine in a MS. of Tho. Astle esq. p. 2.
Venyson. 135. often eaten with furmenty, E. of Devon’s Feast, _in brothe_. Ibid.
Verde Sawse. 140. it sounds _Green Sauce_, but there is no sorel; sharp, sour Sauce. See Junius, v. Verjuice.
Wele. 1. 28. old pronunciation of _well_, now vulgarly used in Derbysh. _wel_, 3. alibi. _wel smale_, 6. very small. v. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 218. 220. Hearne, in Spelm. Life of Alfred. p. 96.
Wyndewe. 1. winnow. This pronunciation is still retained in Derbyshire, and is not amiss, as the operation is performed by wind. v. omnino, Junius. v. Winnow.
Wayshe, waissh, waische. 1. 5. 17. to wash. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: wascan].
Whane, whan. 6. 23. 41. when. So Sir Tho. Elliot. v. Britannia. Percy’s Songs, I. 77. MS. Romance of Sir Degare vers. 134. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: hwanne]. wan, wanne. MS. Ed. 25. 38. when.
Wole. Proem. will. _wolt_. 68. wouldst. Chaucer, v. Wol.
Warly, Warliche. 20. 188. gently, warily. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: ware], wary, prudent. Chaucer. v. Ware. Junius, v. Warie.
Wafrouns. 24. Wafers. Junius, v. Wafer.
With inne. 30. divisim, for within. So _with oute_, 33.
Welled. 52. v. ad loc. MS. Ed. 23.
Wete. 67. 161. wet, now in the North, and see Chaucer. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: wat].
Wry. 72. to dry, or cover. Junius, v. Wrie.
Wyn. MS. Ed. 22. alibi. Wine. v. Wyneger.
Wryng thurgh a Straynour. 81. 91. thurgh a cloth, 153. almandes with fair water, 124. wryng out the water. Ibid. wryng parsley up with eggs, 174. Chaucer, voce wrong, ywrong, and wrang. Junius, v. Wring.
Womdes, Wombes. 107. quare the former word? perhaps being falsely written, it was intended to be obliterated, but forgotten, _Wombes_ however means _bellies_, as MS. Ed. 15. See Junius, voce _Womb_.
Wyneger. MS. Ed. 50. Vinegar. v. Wyn.
Wone. 107. _a deal_ or _quantity_. Chaucer. It has a contrary sense though in Junius, v. Whene.
Whete. 116. Wete. MS. Ed. 1. II. 30. Wheat. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: hwate].
Wastel. 118. white Bread. _yfarced_, 159. of it. MS. Ed. 30. II. 18. Gloss. ad X Script. v. Simenellus. Chaucer; where we are referred to Verstegan V. but _Wassel_ is explained there, and not _Wastel_; however, see Stat. 51 Henry III. Hoveden, p. 738. and Junius’ Etymol.
Wheyze. 150. 171. Whey. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: hwaz]. Serum Lactis. g often dissolving into y. v. Junium, in Y.
Wynde it to balles. 152. make it into balls, turn it. Chaucer. v. Wende. Junius, v. Winde.
Wallenotes. 157. Walnuts. See Junius, in voce.
Wose of Comfrey. 190. v. ad loc. Juice.
Wex. MS. Ed. 25. Wax.
Were. MS. Ed. 57. where.
Y. is an usual prefix to adjectives and participles in our old authors. It came from the Saxons; hence ymynced, minced; yslyt, slit; &c. _I_ is often substituted for it. V. Gloss. to Chaucer, and Lye in Jun. Etym. v. I. It occurs perpetually for _i_, as ymynced, yslyt, &c. and so in MS. Editoris also. Written z. 7. 18. alibi. used for _gh_, 72. MS. Ed. 33. Chaucer. v. Z. Hence ynouhz, 22. enough. So MS. Ed. passim. Quere if _z_ is not meant in MSS for g or _t_ final. Dotted, [Anglo-Saxon: y(1)], after Saxon manner, in MS. Ed. as in Mr. Hearne’s edition of Robt. of Gloucester.
Ycorve. 100, 101. cut in pieces. icorvin, 133. Gloss. to Chaucer. v. _Icorvin_, and _Throtycorve_.
Zelow. 194. _yolow_. MS. Ed. 30. yellow. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: zealuwe] and [Anglo-Saxon: zelew].
Yolkes. 18. i. e. of eggs. Junius, v. Yelk.
Ygrond. v. Gronden.
Yleesshed. 18. cut it into slices. So, _lesh_ it, 65. 67. _leach_ is to slice, Holme III. p. 78. or it may mean to _lay in the dish_, 74. 81. or distribute, 85. 117.
Ynouhz. 22. ynowh, 23. 28. ynowh, 65. ynow. MS. Ed. 32. Enough. Chaucer has _inough_.
Yfer. 22. 61. id est _ifere_, together. _Feer_, a Companion. Wiclif, in _Feer_ and _Scukynge feer_. Chaucer. v. Fere, and Yfere. Junius, v. Yfere.
Yfette. Proem. put down, written.
Yskaldid. 29. scalded.
Ysode. 29. _isode_, 90. _sodden_, 179. boiled. MS. Ed. II. 11. Chaucer. all from to seeth.
Ysope. 30. 63. Ysop. MS. Ed. 53. the herb Hyssop. Chaucer. v. Isope. Yforced. v. forced.
Yfasted. 62. qu.
Zif, zyf. MS. Ed. 37. 39. if. also give, II. 9. 10.
Ystyned, istyned. 162. 168. to _styne_, 66. seems to mean to close.
Yteysed. 20. pulled in pieces. v. ad loc. and v. Tease.
Ypaunced. 62. perhaps pounced, for which see Chaucer.
Yfonndred. 62. _ifonded_, 97. 101. _yfondyt_, 102. poured, mixed, dissolved. v. _found_. Fr. fondu.
Yholes. 37. perhaps, hollow.
Ypared. 64. pared.
Ytosted, itosted. 77. 82. toasted.
Iboiled. 114. boiled.
Yest. 151. Junius, v. Yeast.
Igrated. 153. grated.
Ybake. 157. baked.
Ymbre. 160. 165. Ember.