Borders & Lothian (including Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland) is a south-east region of Scotland, and these are a collection of local and regional recipes handed down within families who have lived and worked in the Borders & Lothian area. All of the recipes below are regionally authentic, originally coming from recipe books published in the 1800s or 1900s, with the weights and measurements adjusted (alongside the old standards) where appropriate for the modern kitchen.
Cock-a-Leekie soup is a Scottish soup dish of leeks and chicken stock. Sometimes it is just eaten as a simple broth, at other times the boiled chicken meat is stripped and added back in.
1 chicken (trussed with the giblets), 6 leeks, salt and pepper to taste, 1 bouquet garni (herb bag), 1 tsp ground allspice, 1 tsp sea-salt, 6 prunes (soaked overnight and stoned).
In a large saucepan add the trussed (tied up tight with string) chicken with the giblets (innards and organs sold with the chicken). Cover with water, add the bouquet garni (herb bag), the seasonings and allspice and bring to the boil. Reduce the heat to a very gentle simmer, every so often skim off any rising impurities or scum and boil for 2 hours (120 minutes) on a low heat. Wash the leeks thoroughly, cut into 1 inch (2.5cm) lengths and add after the 2 hours, boil for a further 1 hour (60 minutes). Thirty minutes before the end add in the prunes. After the full three hours remove the chicken, drain over the saucepan, discard the giblets, and set aside. Remove and discard the bouquet garni. In poorer households the leek broth was eaten without the chicken, which was reserved for another meal, in richer households the chicken was diced and added back in to eat with the soup. Strip the chicken flesh off the chicken, dice and place back into the soup. Adjust the seasoning and serve.
2 Quarts (4 pints or 2.2L) water, 1 ½ lb (750g) lean beef (diced small), 1 tsp sea-salt, 1 tsp ground black pepper, 2 oz (60g) pearl barley, 2 oz (60g) yellow split peas, 2 oz (60g) dried peas, 8 oz (225g) diced carrot, 4 oz (115g) diced turnip, 3 leeks (sliced), 1 small onion (chopped), ½ small white cabbage (finely shredded), 1 grated carrot, 1 tbsp chopped parsley.
Overnight place in a bowl the pearl barley, dried peas and yellow split peas. Cover with a good couple of inches of water and leave covered. Next day put the diced meat, salt, pepper, pearl barley, split peas and dried peas (which have soaked overnight) into a large saucepan then pour in the water. Bring up to the boil slowly and skim off any rising impurities. Simmer gently on a low heat for 1 hour. Add the diced carrot, turnip, leeks and onion and simmer gently for another 1 ½ hours (90 minutes). Add the shredded cabbage and grated carrot and cook for a further 20 minutes, then adjust the seasoning after tasting. Just before serving add in the chopped parsley.
2 eggs, 3 oz (85g) sausage meat, pepper, salt, egg yolks for coating, dried breadcrumbs, parsley, 4 rounds fried bread
Boil eggs for 20 minutes and place immediately in cold water, chip and shell. Work the sausage meat well with a flat knife on a plate to make as fine as possible, add pepper and salt, mixing the seasoning thoroughly into the meat. Fold a piece of the meat round each shelled egg. Brush with beaten yolk of egg and dip in crumbs grated from dried or toasted bread. Fry in faintly smoking-hot fat until golden brown. Drain and cut each egg in half (length-wise). Fry the rounds of bread in hot fat, drain well, then place an egg half on each round.
3 lb (1.4 Kg) white granulated sugar, 1 pint (600ml) cold water, 1/2 teaspoonful cream of tartar, variety of flavourings and colourings.
Heat sugar and water, stirring until melted. When boiling, put in thermometer and add cream of tartar. Boil quickly to 260 degrees. Pour on to a cold greased slab and leave for a minute or two to cool, fold up and pull for a few minutes, then add flavourings and colouring and continue folding and pulling for 10 minutes. Finally, pull out to 1/2 inch (2cm) thickness and cut into lengths. Lay on greaseproof paper and leave to dry for 24 hours.
Mix 1/2 oz (15g) of caraway seeds with the fourth of a peck (2 Kg) of flour. Make a whole in the middle of the flour, and put into it 12 oz (340g) of butter melted in 1/4 pint (150ml) of milk, and 3 oz (85g) of sugar. Knead this, but not too much, or it will not be short; divide it into two, and roll it out round and rather thin. Cut out the cake be running a pastry-cutter round a dinner plate or any large round dish inverted on the paste. Cut a cake from the centre of this one with a small saucer or large tumbler, Keep this inner circle whole, and cut the outer one into eight petticoat tails – wedge-shaped pieces. Bake all these on paper laid on tins, serve the round cake in the middle of the plate and the petticoat tails as radii round it.
2 lb (1 Kg) fillet of beef, 2 medium sweet apples, 1/2 lb (250g) tomatoes, 1/2 lb (250g) onions, 2 level teaspoonfuls sultanas, 1 tablespoonful chopped parsley, 1/2 teaspoonful thyme, flour for dredging, 3/4 pint (450ml) brown (beef) stock, salt, pepper, 1 oz (30g) dripping (beef dripping), 2 cloves (if a sweeter gravy is desired, sugar to taste may be added.)
Cut the beef in the piece and 1/2 inch (2cm) thick, toss in pepper, salt and flour. Peel the onions and peel and core the apples, chop and mix in mixture, tying with thread or twine. Brown in melted fat on a low heat. Place in a covered fireproof dish with the quartered tomatoes. add stock and simmer for 1-1 1/2 hours or until beef is cooked: add cloves last. about 1/2 before serving time. If the gravy is inclined to thicken, more stock or water may be added.
3 tablespoonfuls treacle, 1 egg, 1 teaspoonful Jamaica pepper, 1 teaspoonful mixed spice, 1 teaspoonful ground ginger, 4 cupfuls (1 Kg) Self Raising flour, 1/2 lb (250g) butter or margarine, 1/2 lb (250g) raisins, little water, 1/2 cupful (150g) brown sugar.
Put margarine, sugar and treacle into a saucepan to melt. Add 1 tablespoonful water. Mix all dry ingredients and add the contents of saucepan. Mix well. Lastly, stir in well-beaten egg. Bake in a slow oven for 2 hours.
14 oz (400g) flour, 2 oz (60g) caster sugar, 8 oz (225g) fresh butter, 2 oz (60g) farola or rice flour.
Sieve flour and farola. Cream butter and sugar well and knead in flour gradually. Roll out about 1/2 inch (2cm) thick. Cut into fingers, crimping the edges and pricking with a fork. Bake in a moderate oven until golden brown and firm to the touch.
3 pints (1.8 L) buttermilk, 3 le3mons (rind and juice) 1 oz (30g) gelatine, 1 1/4 lb (625g) granulated sugar.
Put buttermilk into rinsed pan, add gelatine, slowly stirring all the time. Add sugar, lemon rind cut very thinly and juice of lemon. Set on low heat and stir occasionally until gelatine and sugar are completely melted. Take from heat and stir occasionally until cold but not set. Strain and pour into scalded and prepared moulds and place in refrigerator. Turn out when set and if required put some whipped cream into an icing pipe and force on top and around pudding.